Introduction To Computer Organization and Architecture COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE

Chapter – 1 Introduction

Computer Organization and Architecture

  • Computer Architecture refers to those attributes of a system that have a direct impact on the logical execution of a program. Examples:
    o the instruction set
    o the number of bits used to represent various data types o I/O mechanisms
    o memory addressing techniques
  • Computer Organization refers to the operational units and their interconnections that realize the architectural specifications. Examples are things that are transparent to the programmer:
    o control signals
    o interfaces between computer and peripherals o the memory technology being used
  • So, for example, the fact that a multiply instruction is available is a computer architecture issue. How that multiply is implemented is a computer organization issue.
  •  Architecture is those attributes visible to the programmer
    o Instruction set, number of bits used for data representation, I/O mechanisms,
    addressing techniques.
    o e.g. Is there a multiply instruction?
  • Organization is how features are implemented
    o Control signals, interfaces, memory technology.
    o e.g. Is there a hardware multiply unit or is it done by repeated addition?
  • All Intel x86 family share the same basic architecture
  • The IBM System/370 family share the same basic architecture
  • This gives code compatibility
    o At least backwards
  • Organization differs between different versions

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